Varicose veins in the legs are a disease in which the elasticity of the veins is lost and blood circulation is disrupted. Pathological changes give rise to swelling of the feet, aching pain in the calves and other dangerous symptoms. Why in women this disease occurs more often than in men, is it possible to get rid of varicose veins with the help of drugs and doctors for which to seek treatment - in the material of RIA Novosti.
Varicose veins on the legs
Varicose veins in the lower part of the legs are a disease characterized by continuous expansion of the saphenous veins of the legs, which can lead to the development of chronic venous insufficiency.
"There are three types of veins in the legs: superficial, which is closer to the skin, deep, which is located in the muscle, and perforated, connecting the superficial inwards. The latter flows into the vena cava, which in turn flows. Directly into the heart. Varicose veins, usually occurs in the superficial veins of the lower legs, "explains the highest category cardiovascular surgeon, phlebologist, candidate of medical sciences.
When a person is upright, the blood in the veins of the legs must flow against gravity to return to the heart. As a result, the leg muscles narrow the deep veins, which contain the valves, allowing the blood to move in the right direction. When the leg muscles contract, the valves in the veins open, and when the muscles relax, they close. This prevents blood from flowing in the opposite direction, down the leg. The process of sending blood to the heart is called venous pumping. In the process of walking, the leg muscles and pumps work actively, but if a person sits or stands, especially for a long time, the blood in the leg veins can stagnate, the pressure in them increases.
"Deep and perforated veins are usually able to withstand an increase in pressure in a short period of time. However, if there is a tendency for disease progression, the veins gradually expand. This in turn leads to weakness of the duct wall and damage to it. Valves.
The first manifestation of varicose veins is the spider veins on the legs, next a vascular network is formed under the skin. This can cause pain in the legs. If treatment is not started at this time, then the superficial veins continue to grow, become tortuous, in parallel with this, the outflow of veins from the lower part of the leg suffers, as a result of which the nutrition of the legs worsens, edema, thickening of the skin. and other pathological symptoms appear, "the expert added.
In the early stages of varicose veins, there are no symptoms of the disease. But if there are bulging veins, you should see a specialist. Timely treatment helps prevent the development of complications such as thrombophlebitis, trophic ulcers, etc.
The first signs of varicose veins include:
- heaviness in the legs, a feeling of heat and fullness;
- appearance of edema in the lower legs and feet;
- increased fatigue in the lower extremities;
- aching or throbbing pain in the calves;
- seizures at night;
- appearance of spider veins on the skin.
The dilated protruding veins indicate the course of a severe disease. Skin malnutrition can lead to the development of white skin atrophy.
Discoloration of the skin on the lower part of the legs, the appearance of nodules and itchy vesicles are symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency.
The main cause of pathology is heredity. If someone in the family or from a close relative is dealing with varicose veins or congenital weakness of connective tissue, then the risk of developing the disease increases.
In addition to genetic factors, the main causes of the development of varicose veins in the lower legs include:
- long static loads;
- weight lifting;
- prolonged standing or sitting;
- frequent leg injuries;
- hormonal imbalances,
- long -term use of estrogen -containing drugs;
- age -related changes in blood vessels.
"Women are more prone to varicose veins due to anatomical features and body functions. Also one of the reasons is pregnancy, in the second half of which there is pressure on the inferior vena cava. The presence of the disease can be accompanied by subjective symptoms such as discomfort and heaviness in the legs, throbbing sensation, swollen feet, cramps, itchy skin, tingling and a feeling of heat, "added the therapist, a senior medical consultant. .
Varicose veins in the legs have several stages, which differ in form and symptoms. Among them are as follows: first, second and third.
The onset is characterized by the appearance of spider veins on the skin. Also, patients may experience discomfort in the legs, swelling and heaviness. In this case, there is no obvious venous insufficiency.
The second stage most often stretches over many years. The main symptoms: cramps in the calf area at night, persistent swelling, bulging veins, discoloration of the skin on the lower legs.
The third stage is characterized by impaired venous outflow. Swelling of the feet and legs does not subside, itchy skin appears, the saphenous vein is pronounced. In addition, at this stage, violations of the process of tissue nutrition occur: pigmentation, trophic ulcers, etc.
Complications can occur at any stage, but most often they appear in the last two stages.
Ignoring symptoms or improper treatment of the disease can lead to complications. They can manifest themselves not only in the form of cosmetic defects, but also in serious forms such as: trophic eczema (later turning into ulcers), thrombophlebitis and other venous lesions.
Trophic ulcers - the inevitable result of varicose veins in the absence of treatment. Enlarged veins by varicose veins not only lead to an increase in the amount of harmful substances in the affected area, but also an increase in leg edema. Trophic ulcers exist for a long time, slowly close and have a high level of resistance to treatment.
Thrombophlebitis is a pathology of the circulatory system, characterized by inflammation of the superficial venous wall with the formation of thrombi that cover the vessel lumen. The main symptoms of such diseases are redness and swelling, as well as pain along the thrombotic zone, and an increase in body temperature can also be observed.
The danger level of the disease increases with the appearance of bleeding from varicose veins. If the vessel wall expands for a long time, the skin in the affected area becomes thinner and any minor injury can cause bleeding.
"As a rule, it is not difficult to make a diagnosis. Varicose veins are manifested by" bumps "and / or" knots "on the lower leg. The instrumental diagnosis of varicose veins of the legs is ultrasound Dopplerography of the veins. This method allows you to obtain information about the anatomy andvenous bed hemodynamics, at the same time describing the studied channel, will determine the direction of blood flow and its parameters. In addition to ultrasound, methods such as phlebography with contrast are also used. It allows you to visualize deep and superficial veins, it is used only when planning surgical treatment. "Therapy begins when the first signs of the disease appear. The main goal is to restore / improve blood flow, prevent complications and improve the patient's quality of life, " explained the expert. Ekaterina Yesakova.
Treatment of varicose veins aims to eliminate the manifestations of venous insufficiency, prevent development, prevent recurrence and complications of the disease.
Modern approaches to the treatment of leg varicose veins can be divided into two important groups: conservative treatment of varicose veins and surgical treatment of dilated veins.
Scientists have developed many surgical techniques aimed at treating varicose veins:
Joint phlebectomy. Combined phlebectomy is a surgery in which the surgeon removes the saphenous varicose vein through a small incision in the groin and medial malleolus. Such operations include several types of interventions: crossectomy, stripping, vein removal according to Narat, Klapp. Often, combined phlebectomy is performed under general anesthesia, and the patient has to be hospitalized for several days. Recovery after surgery is long, and aesthetic results are low.
Conservative therapy aims to relieve pathological symptoms, but it does not lead to recovery.
Phlebologist surgeons identify two important aspects in the prevention and treatment of varicose veins:
- Compression therapy.Prevention of varicose veins or its treatment necessarily includes compression therapy. Special knitwear creates a certain pressure on different parts of the leg, contributing to the proper movement of venous blood. It provides maximum pressure in the ankle area, which decreases at the level of the lower leg or thigh, depending on whether it is stockings, stockings or tights. It turns out that the higher the foot area, the lower the compression. This medical product is used for the prevention and treatment of varicose veins and other pathologies of the venous system of the legs. Compression socks are shown to those working on computers, moving a little. Such products should be used during strenuous physical exercise, sports, during pregnancy and on long journeys. It is also worth wearing knitwear for preventative purposes if one of the relatives is concerned about problems with the veins.
- Medical therapy.It includes taking venotonics, the main active ingredient of which is diosmin. In addition, doctors prescribe ointments and creams that contain heparin.
After a complex treatment, the patient eliminates the unpleasant symptoms caused by varicose veins: swelling, heaviness, fatigue and pain in the legs. With successful treatment, the risk of life -threatening complications is reduced to a minimum. The aesthetic problem is over, the patient is no longer bothered with the veins protruding from the leg.
Keep in mind that no method of treating varicose veins provides a full guarantee of eliminating the pathology.
Along with the drug treatment of varicose veins, nutrition plays a very important role. People with varicose veins, as well as with a predisposition to the disease, it is important to monitor weight. If you are overweight, the risk increases severalfold. But even with a normal body mass index, it is also important to follow dietary recommendations to eliminate the inflammatory process in the intestine, because the state of human health and, therefore, quality of life depends on the state of the gastrointestinal tract.
"To maintain optimal weight, it is important to observe the calorie content of the daily diet, control the protein, fat and carbohydrate content (BJU). A nutritionist or nutritionist can help with the correct calculations, as the diet is chosen for each person individually, withtaking into account weight, height, age, physical activity, as well as comorbidities, "explained the nutritionist.
In addition, experts recommend monitoring blood viscosity and observing the drinking regimen. Alcoholic beverages, sweets, pastries, flour products should be excluded.
The diet should contain a sufficient amount of protein, sources of collagen: bone broth, aspic, offal. An important role in varicose veins is played by foods rich in polyphenols, which are found in plant foods: vegetables, fruits, spices, herbs, tea.
"You need to eat foods rich in vitamin C and bioflavonoids, which are antioxidants and support immunity (vitamin C also contributes to collagen production), vitamin E, vitamin B, copper. Such foods include: fish and lean meats, seafood, eggs, nuts, liver.
Also, food should be rich in fiber, as it stimulates the intestines and reduces the risk of constipation, which in turn leads to negative consequences in the body as a whole, as well as the formation of varicose veins due to stagnant processes in the body. pelvis, "added the expert.
When the first symptoms of pathology appear, it is necessary to seek advice from a phlebologist who will select the optimal course of prevention, teach the correct and most effective use of compression stockings.
Also, experts highlight some recommendations for maintaining leg vein health:
- exercise regularly (load should be moderate);
- reject frequent visits to saunas and hot showers;
- get rid of excess weight (each kilogram increases the load on the ship);
- push stockings with tight elastic bands or tight jeans;
- do not sit cross -legged;
- making rotational movements with the legs in the morning and evening to improve blood circulation;
- give preference to comfortable shoes with low heels;
- walk barefoot as much as possible;
- observe a drinking regime (at least one and a half liters of water a day);
- stop drinking alcohol and smoking;
- do a cold foot bath in the evening;
- if the work involves long stays in one position, change the position of the body periodically;
- monitor your diet, reduce tea and coffee consumption.