Small pelvic varicose veins in women are characterized by an increase in their diameter and tortoise. Often, this condition is associated with venous valve dysfunction. Although the prevalence is quite high, the disease is rarely diagnosed.
This is due to various symptoms, the main one being constant pain. It is special for gynecological, neurological, gastrointestinal pathologies. VVMT is sometimes disguised as a disease of the musculoskeletal system - in particular, radicular syndrome and arthrosis of the hip joint.
Description and reasons
Widening veins in the pelvis are not always visible, as they are often located deep under the skin. This is one of the reasons for the diagnostic complexity. With VVMT, the elasticity and tone of the veins decrease, the blood circulates more severely and begins to stagnate. As a result of blockage and vein distension, blockages are made for blood outflow.
The core of the VVMT mechanism is the failure of the ovarian valves, as a result of which blood flows backwards, and there is reflux. This leads to an increase in intravenous pressure and blood stasis, as well as the formation of an additional circle of blood circulation - collateral.
The most important trigger factor is dysplasia, a lack of connective tissue that affects about a third of the population. Dysplasia is a congenital defect in which the level of collagen required for vascular strength is reduced.
In the post-menopausal period, the severity of varicose veins decreases, which testifies to the theory of the influence of hormones on the condition of the veins.
Progesterone, a female sex hormone, also called a "pregnancy hormone", can significantly weaken the tone of the venous system. On the one hand, it reduces the tone of the uterus, thus preventing miscarriage, and on the other hand, it weakens the walls of blood vessels and causes them to expand. The condition worsens with the growth of the uterus, which increasingly presses the large veins and provokes the formation of shortcuts of blood flow, collateral. That is why VVMT is very common during pregnancy.
Increased risk factors for varicose veins include:
- is too high or, conversely, insufficient physical activity;
- multiple pregnancies;
- birth of multiple or complex children;
- gynecological diseases - endometriosis, fibroids, etc . ;
- long-term use of steroid hormones, including contraceptives.
Types and degrees
Varicose veins in the small pelvis are of two types. The first type is called varicose veins of the vulva and perineum, the second is pelvic vein congestion syndrome. The two types can grow separately or merge with each other, most often. Pregnant women face mainly vulva venous lesions, in which more than 91% of cases disappear on their own after giving birth.
BPVMT is also classified based on origin and location. Originally, varicose veins were divided into primary and secondary. Primary varicose veins develop due to lack of venous valves. Pregnancy is the trigger. Secondary varicose veins are caused by systemic disease.
In terms of localization, EMCT is the sum, when all the small pelvic veins are affected, and partially, selectively affect one or more veins. Depending on the diameter of the vein, 3 degrees of severity are distinguished:
- 1 tbsp. - up to ½ cm;
- 2 tbsp. - 0, 6 - 1 cm;
- 3 tbsp. - more than 1 cm.
Symptoms of varicose veins include:
- painful distances and weights in the lower abdomen;
- increased secretion;
- various urinary disorders;
- rapid weight gain is already in the early stages of pregnancy.
Pain usually worsens after sexual intercourse, hypothermia, long walks or standing. If superficial veins in the genitals and upper thighs are affected, veins and bluish red vascular tissue may appear.
Often, the symptoms of varicose veins resemble cystitis: very painful urination in small parts.
Towards the end of pregnancy, there may be a burning sensation and swelling in the genitals. These symptoms require special attention, as the development of inflammation or rupture of the veins, which can cause severe bleeding, is possible.
What is the danger of BPVMT
Varicose veins can cause some life-threatening complications. First of all, this is thrombophlebitis or thromboembolism - inflammation of the dilated veins, which leads to the formation of blood clots. If a blood clot - a thrombus - clogs the ducts, the blood supply to the placenta will be blocked. The result of such blockage is placental insufficiency and fetal hypoxia.
Another serious complication is the threat of miscarriage and premature birth due to poor blood circulation.
Due to the dilated veins, doctors may prohibit giving birth naturally to minimize the risk of rupture of the veins, which can cause internal or uterine bleeding.
In pregnant women, drug therapy is limited to the intake of phlebotonics and anti-thrombotic drugs. With severe pain, it is permissible to use drugs from the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory group (NSAID). If there is a threat of oxygen starvation in the child, treatment is done in the hospital with the use of antihypoxide drugs.
Beginning in the fourth month, phlebosclerosing surgery can be performed, in which venosklerosis agents are injected into the affected vein. The effect of the procedure is evaluated after 7 days, if necessary, repeat. Compressed clothing must be worn throughout the week after surgery. It is possible to achieve vein involvement in one session, but more often it is necessary to perform 3-4 phlebosclerosis procedures.
Persistent pain syndrome and large diameter of veins exceeding 1 cm are indications for surgery. It can be done only in the first 2 trimesters of pregnancy by laser or radio wave freezing method. If VVMT is caused by uterine retroflection, plastic surgery on the uterine ligament is performed.
Pregnant women diagnosed with varicose veins in the small pelvis are advised by doctors to move more and do exercises to prevent blood stasis in the small pelvis. Wearing compression bandages and diet will help slow down the development of VVMT.
The menu should be arranged in such a way that it contains mainly vegetable foods, as well as dairy products and fermented cereals in sufficient quantities.
Increased contrast shower or perineum gives a good effect. During the procedure, the woman sits in a special seat in the form of a ring, water is supplied from below and directed to the perineum. The duration of the procedure is 3-5 minutes, the course of treatment includes 15 to 20 sessions.
Prevention of the development and progression of varicose veins is reduced primarily for the optimization of physical activity and nutrition. The most important thing is to get rid of prolonged static and dynamic loads, as well as adjust the diet, introducing more fruits and vegetables into the diet. In the early stages of varicose veins, exercise therapy and breathing exercises, wearing compression knitwear will help.